Population dynamics and ecology of Javan leopard, Panthera pardus melas, in Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park, West Java
Since 1980, the presence of Javan leopard in Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park (GGPNP) was recorded based on footprints, faeces, food scraps, urine, and scratches on trees. In GGPNP the first camera trap picture of a Javan leopard emerged in 2002, which evolved into a long-term study from 2002 to 2017 to determine the population dynamics and ecology of the species in Bodogol-GGPNP area. We deployed 14 camera traps in a 2x2 km grid system covering an area of approximately 32 km² for six months per year. We obtained a total of 453 photos of Javan leopard from 10,080 trap days. Results from the 2002 to 2005 period indicate that there were three individuals, consisting of 1 adult male (M1) and 2 adult females (M1) of which one was melanistic (M2). In period 2006 to 2011, we recorded five individuals consisting of M1, a juvenile male (M2), F1, F2 and juvenile female (F3). In the period 2012 to 2014, we recorded four individuals (M1, M2, F2 and F3). In 2015, the juvenile male (M3) died and we identified a new adult female (F4). By 2016 we recorded five individuals (M1, M2, F2, F3, and F4). By 2017, we did not detect M1 anymore, but recorded a new adult female (F5) (M2, F2, F3, F4 and F5). These results provide useful insights into the population dynamics of Javan leopard, important for the future management of the species.